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Ceramics, furniture, handicrafts

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Traditional craft villages with tourism development: View from Bat Trang ancient village

( Update: 03/10/2019 )

I am not an expert in tourism but from the perspective of historical research I realize that, like many other countries, tourism is a spearhead economic sector of the country. Vietnam is a country with rich tourism potential. That is :

1) The majestic and beautiful natural and cultural heritage is spread across many localities in the country.

2. Culinary cultural heritages, regional specialties, natural resources are exploited, renovated, conquered and constantly developed by people.

3.The system of museums, historical relics in the country along with beautiful landscapes, festivals rich, diverse, many distinct nuances.

4. The traditional village heritage system: bronze casting, pottery making, carpentry, stone carving, weaving ... with a history of thousands of years, creating millions of material cultural heritage and literary values. intangible chemical.

In this short article, I would like to discuss a few issues about traditional craft villages and tourism development: viewed from Bat Trang ancient village.

1.Record on cultural history of Bat Trang pottery village

Bat Trang is a pottery manufacturing village with a history of over 500 years. This is an old village located on the Red River, north of the ancient capital of Thang Long, now Hanoi capital. It has been making many precious ceramic items with its own nuances that for centuries have been favored from the village to the Royal Palace, from folk gifts to diplomatic tributes. Book Du Dia Chi , the geography books neck precious our country left far, by Nguyen Trai prepared in 1435, had said: " In tribute Northern feudal, Bat Trang village to supply 70 sets of bowls disk “.

Bat Trang village in the past and present (photo source: Internet).

Bat Trang is a place that preserves many historical and cultural relics like all the old Vietnamese villages including Van Chi, Dinh, Chua, Temples, and Mieu, which are proving signs of a civilized village. The address of Bat Trang village is at the rear of the Communal house, just above the triangle is the three characters of high di threshold(Looks great.) Every time the literature village meeting, the officials considered that Van only brought 2 paintings with full names of 364 of the village's academic boards hung up solemnly for everyone to admire. This is a unique pride of the Bat Trang people and is a source of encouragement to encourage the generations of eternal descendants to focus on studying hard. Bat Trang communal house has been restored to the design drawings still preserved by the ancient Far East School. This is also the big temple of the ancient Kinh Bac country. According to the inscriptions, the Bat Trang communal house was restored and roofed on a massive scale in December of the year of the Rat, the reign of Bao Thai (1720), during the reign of King Le Du Tong. The communal house is built in the style of Công, inside is a harem court with 3 compartments, outside is a great court with 5 compartments and 2 wings Family columns made of ironwood hug people. The compartments are paved with wooden platforms for seating. The family looks to the immense Nhi Ha stream, far away is Tam Dao and Ba Vi mountains, feng shui is very beautiful. Up to now, more than 50 religious leaders have been conferred royal titles in the Le, Tay Son and Nguyen dynasties. Especially there are many excellent ethics of King Quang Trung and Canh Thinh. These are extremely valuable relics of the communal house. In the communal house, there are some sentences about the relocation from Bo Bat (Ninh Binh) as follows:

Bo di crafts opening arms;

Lan enthusiastically worship the holy spirit

Translate ;

Bring career from Bo village to build temple temple;

The heart of the people respectfully spread the incense and offered to the gods.

In addition to Van Chi vestige and communal house, in Bat Trang, there are Kim Truc and Bao Minh pagodas. In the pagoda, it still retains a very precious bronze bell, cast in the year of the Rabbit, the year Canh Thinh 3 (1795). Tieu Giao pagoda still has a bronze bell, cast in the year of Giap Than (1824) during the reign of King Nguyen Minh Menh.

Dinh Bat Trang relic (photo source: Internet).

So far, there have been many studies, theses, theses, articles on the ancient village of Bat Trang. Nguyen My Thanh, 2012). Not only in terms of archeology and history, scientists also delve into many other aspects of trade village culture. Legendary stories about the ancestors of ceramics once handed down as a kind of career enhancement from feudal perspective have been proved by archaeologists to be absurd and surreal. It is a story about three Thai students who passed the Tran dynasty (such as a Ph.D. in the Le - Nguyen period) and were sent by the court to the Northern ambassador, Hua Vinh Kieu (or Gao, because these two words are similar) in the Bat village. Trang and Dao Tri Tien of Tho Ha village and Luu Phuong Tu of Phu Lang village. After completing diplomatic work, on the way back to the country through Chaozhou area, when a heavy storm hit, it stopped to rest. There is a Kaifeng workshop. The three men went to learn pottery and then brought it back to the country to tell their people. Therefore, Bat Trang village specializes in white-glazed ceramics, Tho Ha village specializes in red-glazed ceramics, and Phu Lang village specializes in dark yellow glaze. In fact, no one in Bat Trang has acknowledged that Hua Vinh Hao is his ancestor.Do Thi Hao, 1989, pp. 51-53)

Cultural history of Bat Trang craft village is also known for the formation of Bat Trang village. Books Great Vietnamese history and Complete (the century, q 7, century Tran Dynasty) written floods occurred in July the year of the Dragon, the 12 year reign Thieu Phong (1352) " The river water large spill, dike break Bat - Block, cheek rice flooded ... Europe, Hong ... most damage. " Dike Bat - Block said here is only the dike Bat Trang and Cu Block. In December of the Year of Dragon, the fourth year of the Long Khánh reign (1376) recorded the fact that King Trần Nhân Tông brought 12,000 men to cross the river bank of Bát village. Thus, Bat commune has appeared in the administrative unit since the Tran dynasty. Until the middle of the 15th century, Bat Trang certainly had a name in the history of the Le-So period.

Mau Temple in Bat Trang (photo source: Internet).

The establishment of Bat Trang village seems to be related to the settlement and the migration took place over a fairly long time. The study of folklore documents shows that Bat Trang has more than 20 big families that have been present in Bat Trang, such as Tran, Le, Nguyen, Do ... It still retains many unique cultural traits of traditional craft villages. . These are specific cultural practices and activities such as the motto of behaving according to the village's convention, customary rules of the village, custom of marriage, funeral, marriage, etc. Especially, there is folk poetry associated with the trade village. . This is the work of workers to reveal their feelings and at the same time lash out the bad habits of society. Bat Trang is a village with a literary tradition and a career mark that is clearly shown in the language. Many idioms talk about ceramic manufacturing experience such as: The third skin is the third skin and the furnaceexperience in making glaze: small hours ; talking about product defect: The tearing gingival is saying the body is tight and the upper part of the mouth is cracked or the thick thin area has a saying: healthy soup . etc ...

In Bat Trang, there are some recitation sentences associated with pottery:

White legends propagation legends;

Hong lot into a metal earth

Translate:

White mountains transfer mud craft into valuable things;

Pink fire clay molded clay into gold.

Bat Trang is also the village with the highest ranking of the ancient Kinh Bac area. Up to now, there have been statistics on the names that brighten Bat Trang's hometown, Trang Nguyen Giap Hai, a talented Prime Minister of the Mac dynasty. During the Le Dynasty, there were Dr. Vuong Thoi Trung, Dr. Le Hoan Hao (TK 16), Dr. Tran Thien Thuat and Dr. Nguyen Dang Lien. Dr. Le Hoan Vien, (TK 17), Dr. Nguyen Dang Cam, Dr. Le Danh Hien (TK 18), and Dr. Vu Van Tuan (TK 19). Many PhDs also have their names listed on the Doctor's stele in Van Mieu Quoc Tu Giam, Hanoi. Bat Trang also had martial artists with meritorious services to the country such as Quoc Vu Vuang, declared the nation of the Le dynasty, Co Nguyen Thanh Tran (Tk 17) and adopted Nguyen Thanh Chuong. General Thiem Su, deprivation of Lam Tho Hau. In the genealogy of the Nguyen Thanh surname of Bat Trang composed on January 24, the 18th year of Chinh Hoa year (1697), Nguyen Thanh Chuong's first wife is the American daughter of the Japanese public servant of Japan. Ms. Ly's name is Thuy is Before, her name is Quynh Quang, born on July 25, Tan Hoi (1671) gave birth to two sons Thanh Giap and Thanh Uy and three daughters (Do Thi Hao, 1989, pp 49-50)This is also a document contributing to the history of Vietnam - Japan relations. In addition, there are other characters such as Duke Nguyen Tuan (TK 17), Bui Hoi Trai (Tk 18). In the last decade of the 19th century, many Bat Trang children participated in the Bai Say insurgent team of Leader Tran Thien Thuat. A Bat Trang pottery villager who actively participated in the Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc movement was Mr. Le Thien. When the French colonialists suppressed, he and many other members were arrested and sent to Con Dao. In 1912, Pham Van Trang, a patriot who died in Bat Trang, participated in the Dong Kinh Nghia Thuc movement operating in China, was sent to the country to execute the death penalty in the name of the Governor General of Indochina and oligarchs Hoang Trong Phu, Nguyen Duy Han ... The bullet carved from Pham Van Trang's hand killed Nguyen Duy Han at noon on Saturday, April 12, 1913 near Thai Binh town. Along with Nguyen Khac Can's bullet statuary, which was thrown in the middle of Trang Tien street on the same day, killing on the spot two French officers made the French enemy more fearful and terrorist. Pham Van Trang was captured by the French colonialists and sentenced to death with seven Vietnamese soldiers reinstating the association in September 1913. Pham Van Trang has hung a shining example for all generations of young pottery village to follow. (Do Thi Hao, 1989, pp 81-83).

The National Museum of History is one of the many museums in Vietnam, and many private collections still contain very rare collections of ancient Bat Trang ceramics, including many special types of white and cracked glazes. , blue glaze. Among them are many ceramics engraved or civilized in Chinese characters, giving us information about nearly 30 pottery authors who were Bat Trang people from the Le - Mac period. It was the scholar who passed the school to the chief. It is Mr. Do Phu's whole family with his wife and son, daughter, daughter-in-law. The full name of the people who ordered pottery from Phò Mã, Princess to the popular classes, spread across many provinces and cities in the Northern Delta. Nguyen Dinh Chien, 1999, pp 6-7). Many of them have the date of the king's reign, most likely the product of a kiln in Bat Trang or goods ordered by the Court under the Le-Mac-Nguyen dynasties.

Statues of tigers, white and brown enamel reefs (1740-1786) - National Museum of History (Photo: QH).

Censer, 18th-century reef enamel - National Museum of History (Photo: QH)

Peak with cap, enamel and multicolored 19th century - National Museum of History (Photo: QH).

During the Le dynasty, along with the pottery production centers in Chu Dau (Hai Duong) and Thang Long (Hanoi), Bat Trang pottery was exported to Southeast Asia, contributing to the maritime silk road. . Today, many museums in the world have built their own collections of Vietnamese ceramics such as Japan, the Philippines, Belgium, Turkey ... including many products of origin where the production is Bat Trang pottery kilns. Bat Trang ceramic products are popular with many countries because of the unique harmonious beauty of their shapes, enamel colors and brushstrokes. According to Mr. A si li ce, a Japanese ceramic expert, in the period of 1597-1863, many eminent Japanese artisans followed "Kō Chi" pottery (Giao Chi), especially the jars. , the bowl of tea with the dragonfly drawing of Bat Trang and he commented: "They learn with respect and modesty, but the peach blossoms of Mount Fuji, the patterned lines like the heavy cracks of craters on Japanese pottery still can't mix with lotus petals, banana ships, Literature of this Southeast Asia. ”It is thanks to the talented hands of Bat Trang potters that many ceramic products have become a great benefit for Japanese, Dutch, and English merchants. Portugal, France and China ... Not only serving for export, Bat Trang pottery also meets the domestic demand for various types of religious ceramics, household and architectural ceramics. Bat Trang ceramic sack is also a high value item. That is the type of Bat Trang square brick, which went into the Vietnamese folk song:

I wish he could get her

Let me buy Bat Trang bricks to build ...

The Nguyen court set a rule: “ Bat Trang village had to pay a body tax of bricks. The cast class must submit 300 square bricks per year, while the old one must only submit half . ”( Do Thi Hao, 1989, p. 35). Nowadays, we have the opportunity to visit the relics of the imperial capital of Hue, we will see the roads, the electric yard, the patio are all paved with Bat Trang square tiles.